A stepper motor or step motor is an electronic device that converts the electric power into mechanical power. It can help to divide the rotation into equal steps and is a brushless, synchronous electric motor. It can work without any position sensor or feedback mechanism as long as the motor is carefully sized for the application.

But, a stepper motor is required to have an accurate power supply in order to function effectively as a small power supply can lead to poor performance and even possibly damage to the stepper motor driver, which can be time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, it is essential to choose an accurate power supply for the smooth functioning of the stepper motor.

DC power supply is used to run the stepper motor. It is suggested to use voltages several times higher than their rated voltage. So firstly, you need to total up the rated voltages of all the stepper motors used in your project. It will help to determine the total current required for the project. For example; if your system has six stepper motors of 0.25 amps each, the total current required is equal to or more than three amps.

One can control the speed and functioning of the stepper motor by adjusting its power supply. The power supply can be increased in order to improve the RPM, but as much as the stepper motor driver can handle. If the current is higher than the rated voltage on the stepper motor driver, it can damage them.

There are two types of supplies commonly used, regulated and unregulated. Both the supplies can be switching or linear and have their advantages and disadvantages. An irregular linear supply is cheaper and more useful to current surges. However, the voltage drops with increasing current draw. This can cause severe problems if the voltage drops below the working range of the drive. Fluctuations in the line of voltage are also a serious concern as this can cause the unregulated linear supply to be above or below the anticipated voltage.

A regulated supply is more expensive than the unlimited supplies but is suitable for high-speed performance. They are also not affected by line fluctuations. But, the current regeneration may be too massive for the regulated supply to absorb and may lead to an overvoltage condition.

Therefore, anyone can increase or decrease the speed of stepper motor by merely increasing or decreasing the power supply of the stepper motor, but this power should not be more than the rated current on the stepper motor driver as it can damage it. The minimum power supply should be 2/3rd of the rated voltage on the total stepper motors for the running of the motor. So, an adjusted power supply is required for the smooth functioning as both undersized and overpowering can damage the drivers, power supply or the motor.